3 Things That Affect Brain Health: Narcissistic Abuse Recovery

3 Things That Affect Brain Health: Narcissistic Abuse Recovery

As you’re going through narcissistic abuse recovery, you may notice some serious effects on your ability to remember things. Sadly, it’s very common for survivors of toxic relationships.

But good news: there are lots of things you can do to give your memory a boost. Along with these exercises, certain lifestyle factors have shown to have a significant impact on how well our brains function. I’d like to take some time today to focus on just three things you may not realize contribute to your overall cognitive function. Read on to learn more about these three things that affect brain health.

What You Eat

It’s true. What you put into your body makes a difference when it comes to brain health. Just as eating a balanced diet is recommended for a healthy body, you should also strive to meet healthy dietary intake if you wish to maintain efficient brain functioning. Along with following general guidelines for a well-balanced diet, there are some specific foods that have been shown to boost memory and improve focus. Blueberries are one such food. They reduce inflammation and slow down the aging effects on the brain. Fatty fish contain the omega-3 fatty acids necessary to build brain cells, leading to an improvement in learning and memory. Dark chocolate is one you may be pleased to know contains a number of good-for-your-brain compounds, including caffeine and special antioxidants known as flavonoids. Caffeine increases alertness, sharpens concentration, and improves mood. Flavonoids boost your memory and hold back cognitive decline. Some other foods to add to your list of brain boosters include broccoli, pumpkin seeds, turmeric, coffee, oranges, nuts, and eggs.

Mental Activity

Listen, it’s not like going through narcissistic abuse doesn’t mess with your head all on its own, and one of the complications you deal with in recovery might be a sort of “numbing out” and a retraction from your regular life for a while – especially very early in the narcissistic abuse recovery process. Some of us need to spend a lot of time alone and at times, that will involve a certain amount of “not” using our brains – as in, we may just need to zone out and let ourselves have permission to slow way down at the beginning of our healing journey.

The only problem with that is that the amount of activity to which you subject your mind can heavily influence your brain’s function. The approach is that of the “use it or lose it” philosophy. The more you engage in an activity that engages a particular type of cognitive function, the stronger that function will become. For example, when you exercise your working memory by manipulating information in your mind for a particular time period, you will tend to be able to do these types of activities with increased ease over time. There are a number of benefits to maintaining an active mind. As you engage regularly in activities such as reading, working with brainteasers, engaging in hobbies, and learning new skills, the sharper and more alert you will become, with better recall.

Genetics

Cognitive decline is to be expected to some extent in everyone. But the extent of the decline can certainly be affected by narcissistic abuse in toxic relationships, as it can with any trauma. This has been the topic of many scientific studies in an attempt to determine ways we can delay the onset of conditions such as Alzheimer’s and dementia. Why is it that some people can remain sharp as a tack well into old age while others begin to suffer memory loss earlier? Researchers have shown that a person’s genes have a heavy influence on these outcomes. There are known genetic markers that are associated with cognitive functioning in aging. The existence and combination of these markers play a significant role in the manner in which an individual’s brain function is maintained with age.

The information I’ve just provided is a mere summary of all that’s known on these topics, but I wanted to share with you some of the key elements that contribute to your overall brain health. While some are out of your control, there are a number of preventative measures you can take to keep your mind sharp.

Here’s a little more insight on specifically how narcissistic abuse affects your brain directly.

Resources to Learn More About Brain Health

Get Help With Narcissistic Abuse Recovery

These resources will help you with your narcissistic abuse recovery.

These articles might also be of interest if you’re struggling with narcissistic abuse recovery.

Mental Gymnastics Can Be Good for You in Narcissistic Abuse Recovery

Mental Gymnastics Can Be Good for You in Narcissistic Abuse Recovery

We’ve touched on the importance of memory as the storage and filing system of your brain and how it can be affected by narcissistic abuse. As a survivor, I’m sure you’ve encountered frustrating memory lapses such as forgetting why you walked into that room or being unable to remember where you put your keys. While these types of things are a part of life, you can work to lessen such occurrences by exercising your brain. Let’s take a look at how your memory is like a muscle and the ways you can start to “work it out” to make it stronger.

Work to Improve Current Skills
It’s likely you have a set of hobbies you are good at and enjoy. That’s wonderful. You may have noticed that what you love to do has gotten easier over time, possibly less challenging or even boring. That’s because your brain has become accustomed to doing these activities, and new connections aren’t being formed in your neuropathways. You can change that by pushing yourself to push your skills or to pursue more difficult activities in your current hobbies. For example, try an advanced crossword puzzle or learn some new painting techniques.

Switch Up Your Routine
On that same note, the things we do every day as a matter of our daily self-care, leisure, household, commute and work habits can become complacent and boring. Doing things the same way day after day isn’t stretching your brain’s limits or causing it to gain new connections. Try switching things up by attempting the opposite of what you ordinarily do each day. This will cause you to use the other side of your brain for a change. Use your less dominant hand for things like writing or using your computer mouse. Take a different way to work. Make a concerted effort to talk to someone new. Watch a documentary instead of your usual Tuesday night sitcom.

Get Physical
Yes, physical exercise also gives your memory a workout. The reason for this is that our brains rely on an adequate supply of oxygen in order to function well. When you engage in physical activity, you’re boosting the flow of oxygenated blood to the brain. Aerobic exercise like running or cycling work best for ramping up the blood flow.

Take a Class
Learning something new is a sure-fire way to increase brain health and make your memory stronger. Sign up for a class in something you’ve always wanted to try or even just look up a tutorial online for a start. Anything that causes you to work your brain in new ways will have the effect of creating additional neural pathways and connections.

Teach What You Know
Another method for upping your brain power that many people may not realize is to teach something to someone else. Showing someone how to do something causes you to organize the material and to figure out ahead of time how to present it. These steps lead to increasing your own understanding of the information and your ability to recall it with ease.

These are merely a few common ways to keep your memory working and the brain connections forming. Anything new you can add to your routine will probably help. Have fun adding activities to your own memory strengthening regimen and see if you notice a difference in what you’re able to remember.

Social Interactions Will Strengthen Your Memory: Managing C-PTSD Symptoms Narcissistic Abuse Recovery

Social Interactions Will Strengthen Your Memory: Managing C-PTSD Symptoms Narcissistic Abuse Recovery

It’s really easy to become isolated from your friends and family members during and after narcissistic abuse in toxic relationships.

Maintaining communication and interaction with important people in your life can have some great benefits, some of which are particularly useful in improving your overall brain health. Science shows that interpersonal activities can stimulate your brain and ward off cognitive decline. Here are some tips for keeping your mind sharp during and after a toxic relationship.

Get a Mental Workout
Social interactions require a lot from your mind. You essentially get a mental workout when hanging out with friends and conversing. Such activities cause your brain to utilize various processes in order to follow conversations logically, make meaning of the words, hold information while forming a response and provide appropriate contributions. It’s no wonder socialization helps to keep you sharp.

Avoid Cognitive Decline
I’ve touched on this in past posts because it’s so important. Staying socially active is thought to slow the onset of cognitive decline. This is crucial information to have when you’re trying to maintain your mental faculties as long as possible. We all want to enjoy life after abuse – we deserve to live it to the fullest. Socializing with others will not only enhance your quality of life, but it can also improve your chances of staying mentally fit. Research has concluded that those with larger social circles are less likely to develop dementia-related conditions.

Improve Mental Health
Positive mental health is a key component of brain health. Interacting with others causes you to use brain function you otherwise wouldn’t when isolated on a regular basis. Doing so has been demonstrated to help delay the onset of cognitive decline. Mental health and mental acuity go hand in hand. Plus, it just makes sense that having a social support network can help to lessen the harmful effects of depression and anxiety, especially when things get rough.

Even if you’re not engaged with others every day, knowing there are folks you can call in a rough patch can provide peace of mind. Plus, getting social with others can be a quick and effective way to reduce stress and frustration.

There are lots of ways to get more social engagement in your life. Even if you don’t consider yourself a social butterfly or prefer to be a homebody, taking some extra effort to add conversations and interactions with people is an investment that can pay off by enhancing your mental faculties. You can start small by enjoying hobbies or talking on the phone with a friend. Any amount of socialization can help. Socializing is good and necessary for your brain health.

How Drinking Coffee Can Help Improve Memory: Narcissistic Abuse Recovery

How Drinking Coffee Can Help Improve Memory: Narcissistic Abuse Recovery

Going through narcissistic abuse recovery can lead to some major memory issues, thanks to complications from C-PTSD. But good news! If you’re a coffee drinker, you probably know that you feel more alert and ready to tackle the world after you’ve had at least one cup of joe in the morning. But you may not have known before now that coffee is also beneficial to your memory. Research has shown a connection between caffeine and improved memory. Let’s take a look at how this works and why you might want to keep drinking your daily java.

How It Works
Caffeine is a stimulant. It also blocks adenosine, a chemical that suppresses the release of other chemicals known to stimulate the brain. When adenosine is released freely into the brain, you get a jolt of energy and alertness. Your mental performance is heightened, and it’s even possible that these effects can postpone the onset of cognitive decline with age.

How Much You Should Drink
How much caffeine you take in matters, according to research. Studies show that doses of at least 200 mg of caffeine are necessary to reap the optimal memory boosting rewards of caffeine. However, drinking more than that doesn’t necessarily make a difference, as participants who took in 300 mg weren’t shown to improve significantly in memory tasks. Thus, there’s no need to overdo it. Drinking two small cups of coffee is plenty to achieve the desired effects. You do, however, want to consider when you have your coffee, as taking in caffeine more than an hour before completing tasks did not improve performance.

Long-Lasting Effects
In fact, the study showed something even more interesting regarding caffeine intake and memory. It demonstrated that participants who consumed 200 mg of caffeine the day before were better able to accurately complete memory tasks a day later than the control group who consumed none. Memory consolidation is the ability to retain information after learning it, and this process tends to decline rapidly immediately following the receipt of knowledge.

Thus, the fact that caffeine was able to extend that consolidation process is quite significant.

Do be aware that caffeine carries some risks of side-effects. After all, it is a drug. If you’re not a regular coffee drinker, take care when introducing it into your routine. It’s possible to experience nervous energy, jitters or accelerated heartbeat. Those with heart conditions or women who are pregnant should talk to their doctor before adding caffeine to their diets. It’s also possible that caffeine can lead to dehydration.

As you can see, the potential of caffeine to keep you sharp and maintain your memory is there. You’ll want to be aware of how much you consume and when if you hope to maximize the benefits. So feel free to enjoy a couple cups of joe each morning.

Why We Need to Be Concerned About Brain Health: Narcissistic Abuse Recovery

Why We Need to Be Concerned About Brain Health: Narcissistic Abuse Recovery

Did you know that your brain can be affected in some big ways by narcissistic abuse in toxic relationships? It’s true.

Your Body is to a Computer as Your Brain is to an Operating System

If you think of your body as a computer of sorts, your brain acts as your operating system. It helps you to navigate and make sense of the world around you. Does that make sense? This also means that keeping your brain healthy is as important to keeping your whole self healthy as keeping your operating system up-to-date and virus-free can be to your computer.  In other words, your brain health matters!

What is ‘Brain Health, Exactly?

When we use the term “brain health” we mean how well your brain is able to perform such tasks as learning, concentrating, remembering, playing, and managing your bodily functions. But how does your brain’s health play into narcissistic abuse recovery?

Your Brain is Deeply Affected by the Ongoing Stress and Trauma of Narcissistic Abuse

During times of stress and ongoing trauma, including during toxic relationships – along with aging and other particularly stressful periods in your life, your brain will work at differing capacities. A number of factors influence your brain’s health or how well it functions and performs its necessary duties. In addition, there are habits and activities you can engage in that can improve your overall brain health.

Approximately 100 billion neurons come together to form your brain. Over time, the neurons form pathways and connections. These connections occur through synapses, which allow the neurons to communicate with each other. Memories are made as the pathways between neurons are strengthened.

Memory and Brain Health in Narcissistic Abuse Recovery

How often do you find yourself “forgetting” little details? If you’re struggling with memory issues during or after narcissistic abuse, there’s a chance you are dealing with C-PTSD (complex post-traumatic stress disorder) symptoms – as this is one of them.

Your memory is one of the components that make up brain health and influences the ways in which you navigate the world. Your memory acts as the filing system of your brain, storing and organizing information learned for later retrieval. Everything you’ve ever learned is stored away in your memory. In order to keep your brain and memory functioning in tip-top shape, you need to exercise them and take good care of them regularly.

It’s true. Though the brain isn’t technically a muscle, it has to be taken care of in a manner similar to the ways you work out your muscles and care for the rest of your body.

Do you think this might be happening to you? If so, you might be interested in taking our self-assessment for C-PTSD.

More on Narcissistic Abuse and Its Effect On Your Brain

Resources for Narcissistic Abuse Recovery

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Narcissistic Abuse, C-PTSD and Fibromyalgia: The Connection

Narcissistic Abuse, C-PTSD and Fibromyalgia: The Connection

In 2017, I noticed a kind of odd trend among my readers, viewers, and clients: many of them reported having chronic pain and often, fibromyalgia. In fact, as far as I could tell, it looked like the percentage of people in the narcissistic abuse recovery community who reported having been diagnosed with these issues was much higher than in the general population. Instantly, I thought, “There must be a connection!”

After spending a week or two pondering the possible connection between fibromyalgia and being abused by a narcissist, I gave in to my curiosity and got busy researching.  Here are some of the things I learned in my research.

Is there a connection between narcissistic abuse, C-PTSD, and fibromyalgia?

Fibromyalgia Symptoms Sound Familiar to Narcissistic Abuse Survivors

If you’ve experienced narcissistic abuse, you might be able to relate to this list of symptoms. They include things like deep tissue pain, fatigue, depression, mood swings, and insomnia. This is because, according to WomensHealth.gov, “Lower levels of certain brain neurotransmitters, such as serotonin or norepinephrine, may cause you to be more sensitive to pain and have a more severe reaction to pain. Imaging studies of the brain show that people with fibromyalgia feel pain when people without fibromyalgia do not. Some medicines prescribed to treat fibromyalgia try to bring the levels of those neurotransmitters back into balance. ” REFERENCE

What the Medical Community Says About the Connection Between Narcissistic Abuse C-PTSD and Fibromyalgia

Yes, It’s a Real Diagnosis, But …

The official word in the medical community, from what I can tell, is that the cause of fibromyalgia is unknown and that it exists among people whose brains “process pain differently.”
The diagnosis has sometimes been considered controversial, with some people saying it’s “not real” or “an imagined condition,” but even traditional medicine now acknowledges the condition as a “real” diagnosis. Even so, there’s no official test for fibromyalgia, so diagnosis is based on a cluster of symptoms rather than a “positive result,” which may account for some of the doubters.

Some Doctors Ignore or MIsdiagnose Your Symptoms

But for anyone who has ever experienced the pain and isolation that fibromyalgia involves, there’s no doubt: it’s very real – and it makes your life hard. Even worse is that some doctors may ignore your symptoms and blame them on your imagination, leaving you to deal with your pain unassisted.

So, is fibromyalgia associated with narcissistic abuse?

Update 2021: Yes, it turns out that it is. In fact, the NHS website now lists being in abusive relationships as a possible cause of fibromyalgia, along with a list of other possible “triggers,” including an injury, a viral infection, giving birth, surgery, breaking up with a partner or divorce, and death of a loved one.

“Fibromyalgia is often triggered by a stressful event, including physical stress or emotional (psychological) stress,” the report adds. “But in some cases, fibromyalgia does not develop after any obvious trigger.”

WebMD also acknowledges that “significant psychological stress” is one way that the symptoms can be triggered.

I share my thoughts and some additional research in this video.

Are You Mistaking Fibromyalgia Symptoms for ‘Getting Older’ or Stress?

Fibromyalgia symptoms will often show up as common aches or pains, so you might miss them, not realizing how significant they really are. That and a couple of other issues can lead to your family doctor overlooking the warnng signs or misiagnosing you.

For example, if you have muscle pain, you might brush it off and not even go to the doctor. And even if you do, it might be inadvertently misdiagnosed as a sprain or another type of muscle injury, if that’s the only symptom you share in your doctor visit.

Or if you’re feeling tired all the time, you might not tell your doctor, because you’ll search Google or call your mom who will both tell you to get more sleep, eat better, drink more water, stop eating so damn much junk food – and maybe even get more exercise. And all of those would be valid and useful bits of advice, in my experience.

But when you’ve got fibromyalgia, you’re not just tired.  You’re dealing with fatigue – the kind that leaves you feeling exhausted all the time. And no matter how much and how long you sleep, you never feel refreshed. When your muscles are stiff, you laugh it off and say it’s hell getting older.

People joke that you’re too young to be this senile, or that you’re too brunette to be this blonde. I mean, you’d never mention your flightiness to your doctor, right? But what you might not know is that the moments when you can’t focus and you can’t concentrate – along with those blonde moments, senior moments and brain farts – could be symptoms of fibromyalgia.

So, yeah, our lack of focus and sense of concentration and the fact that you can’t remember things as easily might be connected to getting older, or to being stressed out. But it’s also something you might want to mention to your doctor, just to be safe.

And either way, knowing what you’re dealing with is usually the first step to solving ANY problem, and this one’s no different.

Tell your doctor about any unexpected or unexplained pain in your body, or if you’re feeling dizzy at random times. And don’t write off those moments where your leg falls asleep as nothing. Tell your doctor if you’re regularly losing sensation in any part of your body, the feeling of “pins and needles.”

One more really important thing to remember: fibromyalgia symptoms can range from mild to severe and can change depending on the time of day, so don’t ignore those intermittent symptoms – you know, the ones that only happen “sometimes.”

This condition doesn’t just go away, and getting help from your doctor can significantly impact your health and your quality of life. So, if you believe your symptoms are consistent with fibromyalgia, or even that you have several of these symptoms but not others, make an appointment with your doctor and get yourself checked out. Bring a list of your symptoms with you so you don’t forget (and yes, include those blonde/senior moments and brain farts!).

Signs You Might Have Fibromyalgia

The pain is real but it isn’t constant.

People who have been diagnosed with fibromyalgia say that sometimes it hurts most in the evening. And, you might have some totally pain-free days followed by a week of excruciating misery.

Just being touched in the wrong way can hurt you.

Fibromyalgia causes little “trigger points” or little “spots” on your body that seem to cause an inordinate amount of pain when anyone – or anything – touches them. Common trigger points include in your neck, that little spot in the fold of your elbow, or the one just below your knee, You might also have these little “spots” in your lower back, and just above the top of your thigh. (Note – this is another one of those things you need to mention to your doctor).

You can’t party like a rock star.

Even if you were once an all-night party kind of person, those days might be over. When you have fibromyalgia, not getting enough sleep and overeating, among other not-so-healthy habits, can exacerbate your symptoms, causing you even more pain. Fast food, sugar, and preservatives will also become a thing of the past if they haven’t already.

You’re sick, tired, and you can’t get anything done.

Since stress and illness can intensify your symptoms, which can lead to other physical effects, mental stress, forgetfulness, increased pain, and a number of other life-altering symptoms, And even if you WANT to get stuff done, something keeps stopping you and you can’t seem to be productive to save your life. And, stress and a lack of exercise might make your symptoms worse. Can you see how this could snowball?

What You Should Know If You Are Diagnosed with Fibromyalgia 

A fibromyalgia diagnosis might feel scary, but it isn’t a death sentence. First, take a deep breath and know that you are not alone. There are others who successfully deal with this condition and there are many support groups available both online and off that can help you learn about your condition. If you’ve been diagnosed, start learning everything you can to proactively empower yourself.

There’s no cure yet, but there’s a lot you can do to manage your symptoms. 

While there’s no cure for fibromyalgia, there so many different options for treating and managing your symptoms.  Once you’ve been diagnosed, you can start with your doctor’s advice for your situation. If your doctor approves, you can look into some of the alternative and self-help options out there. You should build your own little support team, depending on the treatments and therapies you choose. Depending on your symptoms, your care team may include a variety of members, including doctors and medical specialists, chiropractors, therapists, coaches and counselors, and a number of holistic and alternative healers. A dietician or nutritionist can help you learn what you need to add (or subtract) from your diet to reduce your symptoms, and you might even find that physical therapy can help reduce pain.

You might have to educate the people around you about fibromyalgia.

You may need to educate your family and friends on the limits your fibromyalgia places on you. Since you might need to make lifestyle changes to keep your health on track, anyone you spend time with is going to be affected by it. For example, you might have to rest more frequently, do less around the house or even find a less physically demanding job.

You might have to give up stuff you really like literally forever. 

In other words, you can’t only address symptoms when they’re happening. Survivors who have fibromyalgia have told me that they are the most successful at lessening the symptoms of fibromyalgia when they shift their whole lives toward healing. That means that even when you’re not having symptoms, you have to take extra care and precautions just as you would during active flareups. That means that a change in your lifestyle, even if it feels uncomfortable at first, will pay off in the long run by allowing you to have fewer flare-ups (and therefore a higher quality of life) as a result of your efforts.

Everyone is forced to accept your limits (including you).

You don’t need to make excuses to anyone, but you (and they) are going to have to accept that you have fibromyalgia. And you’ll need to accept that this means you will have certain limits, and no amount of being angry at yourself is going to change that. If anything, being angry at yourself could make it wors So do yourself a favor and , not only because of the negative energy it draws into your life, bu also because of the physical effect it can have on you (not to mention the fact that it will intensify your fibromyalgia symptoms – and there goes the snowball again).

You need a little help or at least a little patience.

You might need to ask for help sometimes, and that’s okay, even if normally, the thought would never occur to you. But when you have fibromyalgia and you’re having one of those days where your pain is taking over, you might need to ask someone for help getting things done. And give yourself permission to put off certain chores and responsibilities if they can wait a day or two. It’s really important that you try to be compassionate to yourself and realistic about the limitations that fibromyalgia cause for you. To balance things out, maybe you can save the things that don’t tax your strength for the days when the flare-ups are at their worst. Obviously, you won’t be able to predict when your symptoms will rear their ugly head, but planning ahead and knowing what you’ll do when flare-ups happen can make life a lot easier for you.

Your life will never be the same, but it can still be good.

Fibromyalgia might force you to change your lifestyle, but with treatment combined with self-help and self-care, you can still enjoy your life. You’ll definitely want to involve your doctor in your care plan and get medical clearance for any kind of treatment you decide to try, even if it’s an alternative one. You need to be sure it’s safe.

Plus, your doctor may be able to prescribe something to take the edge off your pain. You might find that it’s even more effective if you combine it with massage therapy or a visit to your chiropractor. Other helpful things survivors say can help include mindfulness, meditation, regular exercise, and a number of alternative therapies and programs. Some people even say essential oils have been helpful in easing their symptoms. And this is just a fraction of a percent of the possibilities and options out there to consider.

I say explore your options, but please always check in with your doctor on anything that might affect your health, even if you’re not sure. I stress this because I care – and because you and I both know that there are always people out there who might want to take advantage of vulnerable targets. So, be aware, do your research, get medical approval on anything you need to, and be careful. That being said, still explore, research, read, and know your options. Knowledge is always power, and no one knows every single thing.

Paying Attention to Diet Can Help With Fibromyalgia Symptoms

You can use a fibromyalgia diet to help control the symptoms associated with this condition better. Scientists have known for years that eating certain types of foods can work with the body to bring a sense of well being. But did you know that for some people, certain foods, including some that are considered healthy, could actually exacerbate your health issues?

In other words, you will need to get really personalized with your diet – there’s no one-size-fits-all here. For example, gluten, a protein that can be found in many types of foods, cause a variety of issues for some people diagnosed with fibromyalgia – but some people don’t have a problem with it. And some people say that MSG can make the symptoms of fibromyalgia worse, while others tolerate it fine. Caffeinated diet sodas with artificial sweeteners are also reportedly a common issue for many people.

It’s best to avoid processed foods, preservatives, and excessive sugar, but since there really is no one size fits all diet for those with this syndrome, you’ve got to learn to tune into your body and pay attention to what it tells you.

You might find It helps to keep a food journal and write down any adverse reactions to the meals you eat. If one particular meal makes you feel more lethargic or leaves you feeling uncomfortable or in pain, then you might consider eliminating them from your diet.

So what can you eat? There are some doctors who will prescribe a diet consisting only of vegetables and there are studies showing that a vegetarian diet can have other health benefits as well. Still, others believe sticking with a normal healthy diet works just as well for patients with fibromyalgia.

In this video Interview, Functional Medicine Coach and Holistic Healer/Nutritionist Sharon Chud offers additional insight into the connection between narcissistic abuse and fibromyalgia as well as how diet can help in alleviating symptoms of fibromyalgia.

More Resouces on Using DIet to Relieve and Reduce Fybromyalgia Symptoms

Trauma-Induced Weight Gain as a Symptom of Narcissistic Abuse

In this video interview, Sharon Reese Chud shares her thoughts on weight struggles during and after narcissistic abuse.

Sharon Reese Chud: Functional Medicine Coach/Holistic Practitioner/ Nutritionist

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